Dev Notes

Various Cheat Sheets and Resources by David Egan/Carawebs.

Persistent Banning of IP Addresses with Fail2Ban

Fail2Ban, Security
David Egan

If you’re using Fail2Ban you can easily set up a list of banned IP addresses that Fail2Ban will use to set up DROP rules in iptables whenever Fail2Ban starts. This is very useful since it is easy to persist IP bans across reboots.

You need to modify the relevant action config file, and reference a “blocklist” file. When you add IP addresses to the blocklist and reload Fail2Ban, the relevant drop rules will be added.

Action files specify which commands are executed to ban and unban an IP address. Like with jail.conf files, if you desire local changes create an [actionname].local file in the /etc/fail2ban/action.d directory and override the required settings.

Action files have two sections, [Definition] and [Init]. The [Init] section enables action-specific settings. These can be overridden for a particular jail (in jail.local) as options of the action’s specification in that jail.

IP Blocklist and Associated Action

For our purposes, we will amend the actionstart command in the [Definition] section. This command (or commands) executes when the jail starts. To override the default action, create a corresponding .local file and add the amended actionstart command:

sudo nano /etc/fail2ban/action.d/iptables-multiport.local

# Enter the following to override the default actionstart command:

# Add drop rules for specified IPs.
# Enter IPs to permanently ban, one per line in /etc/fail2ban/ip.blocklist:
actionstart = <iptables> -N f2b-<name>
              <iptables> -A f2b-<name> -j <returntype>
              <iptables> -I <chain> -p <protocol> -m multiport --dports <port> -j f2b-<name>
              cat /etc/fail2ban/ip.blocklist | while read IP; do iptables -I f2b-<name> 1 -s $IP -j DROP; done

After creating and editing the file, save and exit (ctrl-o followed by ctrl-x).

Create a file /etc/fail2ban/ip.blocklist and enter IP addresses to ban - one per line.

Restart Fail2Ban for the changes to be applied. If you run sudo iptables -S now, you should see rules like -A f2b-ssh -s 11.22.333.444/32 -j DROP associated with your different jails.

Auto Add IP Addresses to the Blocklist

If you want to automatically add IPs to your list as they are banned, you need to amend the actionban command such that the IP is appended to your list when the IP is banned:

actionban = <iptables> -I f2b-<name> 1 -s <ip> -j <blocktype>
            echo <ip> >> /etc/fail2ban/ip.blocklist

Commands specified in the [Definition] section of are executed through a system shell so shell redirection and process control is allowed. Note that commands should return 0, or an error will be logged (ref: man jail.conf).


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